Alice’s Adventchers in Wunderland
|“In dat direction,” de Moggy said, wavin its right paw round, “lives a Atter: an in dat direction,” wavin de udder paw, “lives a March Are. Visit eider you like: dey’re both mad.”||“In that direction,” the Cat said, waving its right paw around, “lives a Hatter: and in that direction,” waving the other paw, “lives a March Hare. Visit either you like: they’re both mad.”|
|“Burr’I do’n wanna go among mad people, “Alice remarked.||“But I don’t want to go among mad people,” Alice remarked.|
|“Oh, you caan’t elp dat,” said de Moggy: “we’re all mad ere. I’m mad. You’re mad.”||“Oh, you ca’n’t help that,” said the Cat: “we’re all mad here. I’m mad. You’re mad.”|
|“Ow d’you know I’m mad?” said Alice.||“How do you know I’m mad?” said Alice.|
|“You gorra be,” said de Moggy, “or you would’n ave come ere.”||“You must be,” said the Cat, “or you wouldn't have come here.”|
|"Scouse" is the name of the unique dialect of English spoken in Liverpool. It is a relatively new dialect, dating to the 19th century, showing some influence of speakers from England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. The Beatles are perhaps the most famous speakers of Scouse, or at least the first speakers who came to public prominence outside the Liverpool region. This book contains a brief sketch of the orthographic principles used in presenting the Liverpudlian dialect in this edition. The Scouse translation was first prepared by Marvin R. Sumner in 1990, and is now published for the first time in anticipation of the "Alice 150" celebrations being held in 2015.|
On Dialect OrthographyPublishing text in an unstandardized orthography is a challenge. A balance must be found between faithfulness to the sounds of the dialect and legibility to an audience who reads the standard language. English dialect spellings are nothing new, of course: from Robert Louis Stevenson’s representation of Scots in Kidnapped to Mark Twain’s representation of Missouri dialect in his Adventures of Huckleberry Finn various approaches have been taken. Often these approaches make use of what is known as “the apologetic apostrophe” to mark letters from the standard language which have been “dropped”. In the case of Scouse, another feature, known as “eye dialect” is often found in dialect literature. This has been largely avoided here. Most dialect literature, whether poetry or prose, is fairly short and eye-dialect doesn’t necessarily confuse the reader. But in a 27,000-word novel, the representation of Queen as Kween (where there is arguably no pronunciation difference, though initial /k/ is strongly aspirated in Scouse and so this word can be [kʰwiːn] even [kˣwiːn], but the letter k doesn’t imply this vis à vis q.), or re-spelling words for re-spelling’s sake (should the Duchess put her arm around Alice’s waste rather than her waist?) ultimately makes the text harder to read, when instead the salient phonetic and grammatical features of the dialect are what is of interest. Here, we write know/knew rather than now/new, continued rather than kontinyewed, and mentioned rather than menshuned, rather following the Scots model, where a literary orthography differs from the standard language where necessary, but retains familiar word-shapes where possible. This practice was recognized in the 1947 Scots Style Sheet and the 1985 Recommendations for Writers in Scots, both of which discourage the apologetic apostrophe while retaining it for ordinary purposes. Many of these recommendations apply easily to the linguistic features of Scouse, and have been followed in the text used in this book. In the Evertype editions of Alice in Appalachian English and Cornu-English, the spellings used were regularized on similar literary orthographical grounds.
Since the reader may appreciate a summary of the orthographic conventions used here for the Scouse dialect, a list is given below.
HTML Michael Everson, Evertype, 73 Woodgrove, Portlaoise, R32 ENP6, Ireland, 2015-07-23
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